Amoeblog

Cinema of Mali

Posted by Eric Brightwell, December 22, 2008 08:36pm | Post a Comment
Backrground of Mali

 

            750 - 1076                                   1230 - 1600                                              1340 - 1591

Historically Mali was part of three Sahelian Kingdoms. The Soninke-dominated Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (which established Timbuktu and Djenne as major cities) and the Songhai Empire. These kingdoms controlled Trans-Saharan trade of gold, salt and other precious comodities. It collapsed following an Imazighen (aka Berber) invasion. When the European nations established sea routes for trade, the Trans-Saharan trade economy collapsed. To make things worse, the region grew increasingly desertified. France invaded the weakened nation and occupied Mali from the early 1800s until independence in 1959. Today, Mali is economically one of the poorest countries in the world.


Malians outside a cinema

Culturally, however, it's quite rich. Like its West African neighbors, it's also highly diverse. Most of its people are Bamana. There are also large populations of Soninke, Khassonke and Malink are all Mandé. There are smaller numbers of Peul, Voltaic, Songhai, Taureg, Bozo, Dogon, and Moor.  Altogether, more than 40 languages are spoken. 

 
                                Tellem (Mali)                                                                 Hohokam (Arizona)

The famed Dogon people based their calendar on Sirius B, a star not visible to the human eye. Their awareness of Jupiter and Saturn's rings preceded the invention of the telescope. They also lived in cliff dwellings, not unlike the aboriginals of America's southwest. What would Erich Anton Paul von Däniken  say?


Cinema of Mali

Mali's cinema is comparitively less known than the world famous movies of its neighbors, Senegal and Burkina Faso. But it's not for want of excellent films. Almost all of its key filmmakers were born in Bamako, the capital and largest city. After over a century of exploitation at the hands of the French, Mali initially cozied up to the USSR. Many of Mali's directors honed their craft at the world's oldest film school, the Всесоюзный государственный институт кинематографии (also known as VGIK, the All-Union State Institute of Cinematography) in Moscow. The school is the alma mater of Tarkovsky, Iosseliani, Eisenstein, Parajanov, Bondarchuk and Sokurov. The faculty included Eisenstein, Pudovkin, Dovzchenko and other noteworthy figures. Many Malian films incorporate Soviet-developed visual techniques to make films that are sometimes nearly wordless pieces of visual poetry which can overcome illiteracy and Mali's over 40 spoken languages.

Malian Directors

Souleymane Cissé with Fatih Akin and Marty Scorsese

The future of Blu-Ray

Posted by Eric Brightwell, December 9, 2008 09:05pm | Post a Comment


This town needs an enema
The Dark Knight was released today (December 9th) on DVD and Blu-Ray. It will, no doubt, be yet another enormously popular title on DVD -- but for Blu-Ray, it's being viewed by some as a make-it-or-break-it title. You may've noticed Blu-Ray commercials are beginning to sparingly pop up on TV. This is part of a curiously cautious, last ditch effort to boost the troubled format's fortunes. Last Christmas, sluggish sales of HD DVD resulted in that format's extinction the following spring. Some thought that Blu-Ray, as the victor of the so-called format war, would benefit from a sales boost from cautious buyers who'd been waiting to see what format triumphed. But instead Blu-Ray player sales dropped 40% in the first month of the year, then plateaued before dropping to less than half their peak sales not long after. Like LaserDiscs before them, Blu-Rays offer superior quality at a higher price but appeal only to a niche market. It remains to be seen if this market can grow sufficiently to keep Blu-Rays viable.



What’s the problem, officer?
While hordes of consumers have turned to low cost, low quality mp3s over CDs, the idea that those same people would shell out more money for a higher quaity optical format was never a likely scenario. I personally don’t like the way everything looks in HD. I caught a bit of Bachelor Party in HD and it looked like one of those cheap, BBC costume dramas from the '70s, All of the shoddiness was exposed in a harsh, unflattering light that I found disconcerting and distracting. I also like Conan O'Brien more when I can't see the edge of his foundation. Is clearer picture always a good thing? Would you pay three times as much for a Renoir or Cézanne if it was photorealistic? Have you ever felt that the main issue with a bad movie was that the resolution wasn't high enough? So many supposed innovations are actually vastly inferior to what they're supposed to improve. If it sounds like I'm talking about more than detachable collars, it's because I am.


Another problem with Blu-Ray is the selection. The selection is primarily limited to whatever new Hollywood films are coming out and titles that, on DVD, gather dust in the world’s bargain bins. Who is the person out there that’s going to buy S.W.A.T. or Dinosaur in 2008? I feel like people are over merely building their libraries at this point. About the only classic titles released on Blu-Ray, thus far, are the early Bond films… which are on five different channels at any point of every day, sometimes in HD.
Yet another of Blu-Ray’s problems is that a lot of people still haven’t even heard of it. Whereas those who ask what a DVD is and if it will play “in the regular machine” (i.e. VCR) were all pretty much born before the Great Depression, many people, of all backgrounds, regularly express complete, disinterested ignorance about Blu-Rays. With commercials advertising Blu-Ray's supposed advantages just beginning to air, it seems like a typically dunderheaded Sony move, to waiting till they’re at death's door to give their product a push.

There are a lot of discussions and mischaracterizations of the Blu-Ray market that don’t hold up against the facts, which certainly isn't helping. It’s often claimed that Blu-Ray players and discs are just too high priced. In fact, two years into their existence, Blu-Ray players are only about $200. On the other hand, two years into their existence, DVD players cost $300 and the discs were about the same price as Blu-Rays are today. At Amoeba, we sell Hannah Montana and Alvin & the Chipmunks for $12.99. We’ve got Dan in Real Life, Ultraviolet, The Great Raid, King Arthur, Premonition, The Santa Clause 3 for only $9.99. Clearly, price isn't the only obstacle these films face. For films to be released on Blu-Ray, there are fees of around $40,000 which is why you're unlikely to see indie, foreign, music, documentaries, silents, animes or classic films any time soon.

The real difference isn’t cost, it’s that Blu-Rays hardly present the monumental improvement over DVDs that DVDs did over VHS. A better analogy is to DVD-audio and Super Audio CDs, which failed to dislodge CDs as the format of choice. And those aforementioned titles aren’t exactly the kind of fare that would warrant the Hi-Def treatment (nor repeated viewings) in the first place. Nor are they the sort of titles that appeal to the Blu-Ray market. Blu-ray discs peaked at 7.5% of the disc market in March, following HD DVD death. Then they dropped down to 4%. Since then, the NPD won't release sales figures of Blu-ray standalone players because they’re so low that it might convince people not to purchase players, fearing they’ll stop producing discs for them next spring. The figure is believed to hover around a measly 3%, lower even than Bush's approval rating by a large margin.
While Blu-Rays appear to be struggling to get off the ground, DVDs continue to hold more appeal for both cineastes and the money-minded alike. Amazingly, it's been reported that a lot of people can’t tell the difference between DVDs and Blu-Rays. Because of that, it’s unlikely that most people would be willing to shell out any amount of extra money for benefits they can’t recognize.
Meanwhile, especially in emerging economies, like Africa, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South America, DVD sales are actually growing. As DVD prices drop and approach those of VCDs, they’re beginning to approach the sales of the third-world-beloved, low cost, low quality optical format. And for film collectors looking to own copies of hard to find titles, there are a lot more interesting titles on the import market than Blu-Ray.

It’s not all bad…
At 3% of the video market, Blu-Rays are obviously a niche market. Although many articles portray Blu-Ray consumers as “Tech Geeks,” it seems to me that it’s much more a market for conspicuous consumers. Tech Geeks don’t want disc clutter. They have high bandwidths and stream HD, seeing little reason to own media. Even if they did, computer storage space normally falls in cost between 40%-50% a year, making downloads still more attractive. No, the conspicuous consumer, the guy who wants to drop jaws with the size of his TV, who wants to rattle the earth with his audio, seems to be the real market. Whereas LaserDiscs similarly offered pictures a thousand times better than VHS (but for a higher price), that format attempted to appeal to cineastes. Blu-Ray's successes are all big, bright, loud, shiny blockbusters -- usually about superheroes. And those seem to actually be selling pretty briskly (well, except for the unsellable Daredevil). But it's going to take a legion of superheroes to win this fight.
Just compare the Amoeba's post HD DVD top sellers on Blu-Ray and DVD:
Top 20 Blu-Rays

Iron Man
There Will Be Blood
Dark City
Batman Begins
L.A. Confidential
Blade Runner
Nightmare Before Christmas
Fall
Mad Men - Season 1
Incredible Hulk
Proposition
Thing
2001 - A Space Odyssey
Batman Begins
Sleeping Beauty
Transformers
Speed Racer
Baraka
Clockwork Orange
The Shining


Top 20 DVDs

Control
Mad Men - Season 1
Joy Division
Flight of the Conchords - Season 1
Le Ballon rouge
Salò o le 120 giornate di Sodoma
Spaced - The Complete Series
Electroma
Joe Stummer - The Future Is Unwritten
I Got the Feelin' - James Brown in the '60s
Love - Love Story
Yo Gabba Gabba - Dancey Dance Bunch
Ladies & Gentlemen the Fabulous Stains
Dexter - Season 2
Fall
Sigur Ros - Heima
Fear & Loathing in Las Vegas
Weeds - Season 3
City of God
Sex & the City - The Movie

What is the deal with Somalia?

Posted by Eric Brightwell, November 26, 2008 01:35pm | Post a Comment
Somalia in the news
If you're like me, you may feel like the media only provides confusing, fragmented glimpses into what remains, by and large, an obscure part of the world that makes regular appearances in the news regarding (usually) famine, war or piracy. And yet, the newscasters seem perfectly content to repeatedly ask, "What's going on?" and "Why do they kill us when we bring aid?" and (most inexcusably stupid) "Aren't pirates a thing of the past?" Yet they seem content merely to ask and never to attempt an answer. So, in the face of another wave of gawking, 30 second snippets provided by the news, here's my humble attempt to shed a little light on the region; one where long-simmering tensions and colonialist pressure have caused the Somali people considerable strife and difficulty for centuries, with no hope of apparent change in the future. And yet, I hope the music and cultural bits I've thrown in will provide a balance to all the misery.


Introduction
Somalia's history (and the horn of Africa, for that matter) for the last few centuries has been a familiar history of extreme hostility and violent retribution. Begrudging neighbors are made pawns of European powers and played against each other with suffering resulting on all sides. Somalia, whilst one of the only countries with only one ethnic group, has never very unified. Originally the Somali people organized themselves on the coasts of the mostly barren country in tiny city states (and later, after conversion to Islam, Sultanates). 


Tubeec & Magool

Ancient Beginnings

In ancient times, the region was widely known and valued by its neighbors, from China to Rome (who referred to the Horn of Africa as "Regio Aromatica"), for its dragon's blood, frankincense, and myrrh-- two of which were good enough for the Christ child and which remain popular commodities today. For a while, everything was apparently chill and, for centuries, Muslim Somalia maintained good relations with Christian and Jewish Ethiopia. The prophet himself commanded Somalia to never take up arms against Ethiopia... unless (foreshadowing here) Ethiopia drew first blood.
 

(Left) A giraffe bought in Somalia by Zheng He. (Right) Ibn Battuta.

Medieval Times
Jump forward a couple of centuries to early 1331. The lengthily-named Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta, a famous Muslim explorer and historian, documented the known Muslim world from Mali to China and, hence, visited the area. He wrote of Mogadishu:

     It is a town endless in its size. Its people have many camels, of which they slaughter hundreds every   
     day, and they have many sheep. Its people are powerful merchants. In it are manufactured the clothes
     named after the city, which have no rival, and which are transported as far as Egypt and elsewhere.


In the early 1400s, the Muslim Chinese scholar, Zheng He, also visited the area. He famously purchased a giraffe which he took back to China.



The Seeds of Enmity
Around this time, Ethiopia began to launch efforts to subjugate the Somali kingdoms, going to far as to execute the Somali king Sa'ad ad-Din II and establish tributary kingdoms which resulted, quite understandably, in Somali revolts and enmity toward their neighbors which is still strong. 
 

Omar Dhuule

In 1527, Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, armed with guns and backed by the Ottomans, led a scorched earth invasion of Ethiopia, attempting to force conversion there to Islam. The Ethiopians, faced with likely annihilation, appealed to the Portuguese, who sent fleets from occupied India, hoping to enlarge their comparatively tiny colonial presence in Africa. The Portuguese-Ethiopian force crushed the Somali state and the Portuguese attempted to absorb it into their empire. Instead it was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire.

Hibo Nuura

Colonialism & Post-Colonialism
In 1875, following Europe's abolishment of slavery, the European powers attempted to exploit Africa through colonialization. Britain, France and Italy all staked their claims and set about carving up Somalia.
Some Somali in happy times
 
In 1900, Ethiopia under Emperor Menelik II again invaded Somalia's Ogaden region. Somalia's nationalist Sayyīd Muhammad `Abd Allāh al-Hasan (called "The Mad Mullah" by the British) retook the area for Somalia... which was then given back to Ethiopia by the British in 1945 and remains a barren patch of symbolism that Somalia and Ethiopia still trade fire over.
 
Some really cheerful Somali pirates
 
Independence
In 1960, both Italian Somaliand and British Somaliand gained independence and unified as Somalia. Following independence, Somalia was fairly liberal for a short time. However, Somalia remained a state whose unity was fragile. Things quickly went south with heavy-handed dictators leading Somalia down the road of repression. In 1976, Somalia went back into war against Ethiopia over the barren, largely uninhabited, contested Ogaden region. Communist Ethiopia was backed by Soviet and Cuban troops who practically obliterated the out-gunned Somali forces. They in turn appealed to the U.S. for help but, under Jimmy Carter, America declined the offer to get bogged down in another Cold War front.


Somali street scene

Civil War & the Descent into Chaos
The weakened Somali state began to fall apart, descending into a civil war, openly encouraged by Ethiopia. Somalia's government grew increasingly totalitarian. By 1990, Somalia was under the thumb of a repressive dictatorship and suffering from a lack of resources. Somalis weren't allowed to assemble in groups exceeding three, fuel lines were long and the currency was worthless. In 1991, Ethiopia-backed clansmen toppled the government and Somaliland, in the north, declared its independence (although it's yet to be recognized by any government). The government splintered and the country, once again, descended into civil war. At this point, piracy grew rampant in the face of a powerless government. Famine resulted from the war as well and, due the volatile instability, the UN proved unable to provide humanitarian aid. The US sent in troops to secure the south. It didn't go well.


Ahmed Cali Cigal
 
In 1993, under Mohamed Farrah Aidid, fighting escalated between Somali and American troops, resulting in 1000 Somali casualties and 18 American. The foreign forces withdrew and the state collapsed completely. Mohamed Farrah Aidid was killed in fighting three years later. Since then, the country has divided along tribal and factional lines, with so-called Islamic fundamentalists attempting to impose their medieval codes through force while a central government exists only in theory and exile. In 2006, Ethiopian forces again intervened, supposedly to help the Somali government, but were mistrusted by many Somali for good reason.


Mohamed Nuur Giriig - Dayaxa idhibay Xala

Piracy

Lately the news has been all about pirates, who are discussed like they're from the pages of some 17th century adventure novel. Unlike the sex trading slavers in the Pacific or the the Disney-glorified serial rapists of yore, Somali pirates are mostly fishermen who turned to piracy in desperation and have a reputation for humane treatment and big spending. By some accounts, they treat their captives relatively well, feeding them Western food and providing plenty of smokes. The pirates, who've netted $150 million in ransom money in the last twelve months, are largely credited with turning the coastal villages they patronize boomtowns. The freewheeling, khat taking, booze swilling pirates help create, in the eyes of many, an oases of liberalism at odds with the Islamofacist-terrorized world beyond their influence.


Fadumo Qasim - Habiibi
 
Fragmentation
Nowadays (although there is on paper an official Somali government) the north is run by local leaders in the fairly autonomous states of Galmudug, Northland State, Maahir and Puntland and Somaliland. The central and southern parts of the country are run by the so-called Islamic Courts who brutally apply Sharia law to the suffering people.

Old Music - Hasan Adan Samatar
Uploaded by bishaaros

Black Hawk Down & Iman... all most of us know of Somalia

Somalia in Film and Somali Film
Not surprising, perhaps (due to the harsh conditions of Somalia), the country has produced very little cinema. Most Somali are content to watch Bollywood films and musicals like Riwaayado reflect the influence of India's film-making. In 1988, Abdulkadir Ahmed Said released the 23-minute Geedka Nolosha which won Best Short Film that year in Turin. But that's about it for homegrown cinema.

With millions living abroad, Somali's diaspora make up large minorities in cities like Toronto, London and Minneapolis (as well as neighboring countries like Djibouti, Kenya and Yemen). Therefore, it's not completely strange that the so-called Somaliwood film industry is centered in Columbus, Ohio. Out of the Midwestern town came Warmooge, the first animated Somali film, Rajo, the first feature-length Somali film and the thriller, Xaaskayga Araweelo. There, directors like Iman Abdisalam Aato and Abdi Malik Isak as well as the actress Fathiya Saleban have achieved a level of fame impossible in their homeland.
 
 
Ahmed Gacayte & Amina Abdilahi

Somali Music

To my western ears, Somali music sounds a great deal like most music in the Horn -- lurching, funky, jazzy and with a tonality that probably connotes something completely different to its main audience. And yet Somalia hasn't received the exhaustive Western attention that Ethiopia has. My guess is that part of this is because most modern Somali music uses cheap synthesizers instead of cost-prohibitive, large bands with expensive interests. Ethiopiques producer/cultural watchdog/apparent douche, Francis Falceto has already vocally criticized modern Ethiopian music for not being authentic enough for his patronizing ass so it's unlikely that he's going to embrace a group of musicians even less able to afford to entertain him with music suitably stuck in the past to please his tastes -- especially when music has been repressed and many artists have moved to London, Columbus and Toronto. 

Some of the better known artists to check out (if you're willing to accept the modernization of third world music as you do your own) include Maryam Mursal, Abdi Sinimo, skyhigh family, Waaberi Horseed, Xaaji Baal Baal Dance Troupe, Cabdillahi Qarshe, Hibo Mahamed Hudoon (Hibo Nuura), Ahmed Cali Cigal, Haliimo Khalif Magool, Mohamed Nuur Giriig, Madar Ahmed Mohamed (Madar Yare), K'Naan, Hasan Adan Samatar, Ahmed Mooge Liban, Mohamed Mooge Liban, Abdiqadir Sheikh Ali Sanka, Yusuf Jamac Ganey, Mohamed Saleebaan, Omar Dhuule, Mohamed Mooge, Ahmed Gayate, Mahamoud Mohamed Cige (Buuse), Mohamed Yusuf, Ismail Yare, Amina Abdilahi, Fadumo Qasim, Abdihakim Mohamed Warsame (Calaacal) and Hasan Haji Abdilahi (Hasan Ganey). If you don't live in a town with a large Somali population, the best thing to do is probably check out Amoeba's Somlia section.

Happy Martinmas

Posted by Eric Brightwell, November 11, 2008 09:10pm | Post a Comment

Today is the feast day of Martin of Tours. Martin was a Roman soldier who gave part of his cloak to a naked homeless man. According to some, he gave the rest of his clothes to another naked man and rode Lady Godiva-style through the late autumn winds. God miraculously warmed the earth for him, which is why it gets warm after being cold this time of year (known by a few as "St. Martin's Summer"). That night, Martin dreamed that Jesus came to him, scantily clad in the portion of his cloak which he'd given to the naked guy. When Martin awoke from his homo-erotic dream, he decided to devote himself to Christ and was baptized at 18.


Eventually he became a bishop in Tours. He didn't want to be a bishop so he hid in a goose pen. The geese betrayed him with honking and that is why we traditionally eat goose today, a sort of revenge best served fairly hot.



In Tours he gained a reputation for his iconoclastic violence, destroying the polytheistic art objects and ancient, historic temples of the indigenous Druidic religion like some medieval representative of the Taliban. He even went a little nuts and cut down trees, to the locals' dismay. On one occasion, a druid consented that he could cut down the tree if he stood where it was likely to fall. He did so and, of course, the tree fell in another direction. The druids were impressed.


He didn't stop there. He was able to stop fire, cast out demons and even resurrect the dead. Threads of the sackcloth he wore were used to heal the sick. He also introduced the Chenin Blanc varietal and, although he only believed in drinking wine when sick, is widely associated with viticulture.

Martin himself lived a fairly ascetic existence, as recommended by Jesus. Wearing clothing made of camel hair and living in a cave, he became strangely popular by the middle ages. The practice of "Quadragesima Sancti Martini," or, "the forty days of St. Martin" were marked by overindulgence on the eve of his feast day followed by 40 days of fasting.


Today, Flemish and Germanic children parade through the streets with lanterns made of paper... or beets. They're led by a horseman dressed as St. Martin whom the kids sing songs about. In Malta children are given bags of various nuts, citrus fruits and pomegranates which symbolize things that I don't feel like getting into.


In Portugal people gather to eat roasted chestnuts and drink aguapé and jeropiga. Some children are given presents today, sitting out St. Nicholas Day and Christmas. For Baltic people, Martinmas is a day to honor the dead, and the first day of winter. People stopped working in the fields, going to work instead in the home (if women) and the forests (if men). In Balkan countries, priests bless the grape before it becomes wine. They eat Mlinci, a dish made of bread that's been fried in bird fat. In Poland they eat croissants and set off fireworks. In Spain they slaughter pigs which has given rise to the saying "A cada cerdo le llega su San Martín," which would sound really cool if you said it right before offing some bad guy on November  11.


In Denmark, where they hate Germans, the holiday is known as Mortens aften because Martin sounds so German (e.g. Martin Luther). One of the two Danish guys I know is named Morten. Today, Danes eat duck because Goose is too expensive. This doesn't really seem fair to the duck, who had nothing to do with Martin's being forced into the church.



In the olden days, men went door-to-door, dancing and singing and crossing-dressing, a tradition echoed by the characters Shenehneh Jenkins, Edna Payne from the '90s television series... Martin! Another interesting connection is that there is a country, St. Martin, which is mostly known for its bars and nude beaches. Things that make you go "hmm."

November is Native American Heritage Month

Posted by Eric Brightwell, November 5, 2008 07:19pm | Post a Comment


NATIONAL AMERICAN INDIAN HERITAGE MONTH

The first American Indian Day was celebrated in May 1916 in New York. Back in 1990, President George H.W. Bush named November National American Indian Heritage Month. The purpose of the observance is to highlight the roles America's aboriginal peoples have played in the country's history. It's kind of interesting. I'd say that the main role Natives have played in regard to American history was armed resistance and reluctant subjugation. It's kind of like Israel having a National Palestinian Heritage Month, Turkey having an Armenian History Month or Sudan having a Darfur Day.

I suppose, somewhat begrudgingly, that most Natives today have come to accept the fact that America is here to stay ...at least until 2012. Furthermore, Natives have, in many cases, actually been supportive of America and contributed to her history, to be sure. For example, not only did many Native nations align themselves with the US and its colonial antecedents at various times, but they also served as really good trackers and proved to be natural ecologists who demonstrated their intrinsically environmentalist natures by using every part of the bison and coming up with 30 different names for snow.

  
                              Don't worry, I will use every part of you                                                                     Hmm... what kind of snow is this?


AMERICAN INDIANS VS NATIVE AMERICA

Now, one thing I don't get is why we're supposed to differentiate the hemisphere's various indigenous people along the present day lines of colonial-imposed boundaries. For example, why are the Uto-Aztecan-speaking Comanche and Hopi lumped in with Alaska's Aleuts and separated from their Uto-Aztecan cousins, the Aztecs, just because the latter chose to cross a then-non-existent border? It gets especially confusing when you realize that there are/were various people like the
Míkmaq, Inuit, Lingít, Niitsítapi, Cree, Algonquin, Kanienkeh, Blackfoot, Tohono O'odham and many others who lived on both sides of the future US's borders as if they weren't even there (namely, because they weren't). Though far from hegemonic, to distinguish between Canada's "First Nations" or "Aboriginal Peoples," the US's "Native American" or "American Indian" population and Latin America's "Indios" or "Pueblos Indígenas" along the lines of their colonial destructors is not only nonsensical but ignorant, at the very least, and possibly a bit racialist.


Clearly, since the presence of Mounties indicates that this is Canada, these can't be Native Americans, right?

Anyway, though the stated aim of Native American Heritage Month is to honor contributions only of the U.S.'s indigenous peoples (you know, the usual Sakajewa, Pocahontas and the Navajo Code Talkers stuff), it's not going to stop me from addressing the contributions and existence of non-U.S. Natives from the blogversation as if there's some kind of pan-Native solidarity.





*****


MANY MOONS  -  A BRIEF HISTORY OF NATIVES AND CIVIL RIGHTS

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