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Ya Hoidz Me? - Talk About Bounce Music

Posted by Eric Brightwell, March 20, 2009 12:01am | Post a Comment

For some reason, the Bounce scene, born nearly 20 years ago, seems to be undergoing a minor critical reassessment as it inspires curiosity in a new generation of fans amongst the young, the Euro, the old and new. I can only guess why. I suspect that part of it is a development of the ongoing, time-delayed, middle class fascination with vulgar, good-time booty, that, as with booty bass, gogo, ghettotech and juke house before, takes a little longer to catch on beyond the music's traditional base. Or perhaps it’s just the curiosity factor due to the prevalence of so many openly gay rappers, who have been the subject of articles in The Village Voice, The Guardian and The New York Times -- although their readers are unlikely to run out and buy the latest
Sissy Rap record. There was even a piece on Bounce for NPR’s stomach-turning attempt at hipness, What's the New What? ...Just the title of that show makes me feel like I've been kicked where it hurts.


On the other hand, sites like
Louisiana Rap, Nola Bounce and Twankle and Glisten have done a good job in documenting the scene and suggest a much deeper, more honest appreciation that makes me happy. I'll be honest, the idea of a politician claiming to like Bounce would make me die a little inside. Yet, I’d love it if all these underappreciated, undercredited artists who made Bounce happen got some well-deserved acknowledgment and attention. With films like Ya Heard Me documenting the scene and Youtubers like 1825 Tulane Ave and Whatheallman tirelessly keeping Bounce in your ear, I guess I can live with the idea that some ironic, comb-over-wearing member of the Dumpster Click is going to be into it too. Anyway, for the time being, if you look up "New Orleans Bounce" on Youtube, you're (currently, at least) unlikely to be confronted with the image an American Apparel/Vice Magazine disaster doing the Eddie Bow.


 
New Orleans’s Pre-Bounce Background
By the early 1980s, rap had spread to every reasonably large American city, each of which responded in part with scenes of their own. Almost universally, these early artists were highly imitative of their New York inspirations. New Orleans’s New York Incorporated (formed in 1984) and Ninja Crew (formed in 1986) were no exceptions. Within a few years, Miami’s Maggotron and MC A.D.E. were creating Electro-indebted Booty Bass and Houston’s Geto Boys and L.A.’s NWA were making Gangsta Rap -- all highly regionalized in their identities. Early New Orleans rappers like Tim Smooth, Warren Mayes and 39 Posse began incorporating various elements of the hip hop of the day, but for the most part, didn't verbally or musically represent the Crescent that overtly.


In the 1980s, port traffic in New Orleans had dried up following the oil industry going bust. Employment opportunities were suddenly limited primarily to the tourist-focused service industry and the city plunged deeply into poverty. With jobs and money scarce, crime on the rise and the war on drugs stepped up, New Orleans grew increasingly cutthroat and violent. By the late ‘80s/early ‘90s, whereas almost all American cities began to see a rise in gang culture, the more desperate New Orleans remained dominated by self-starters, self-servers and hustlers with rivalries and identities tied more often to wards and the city's many, large housing projects than organized gangs. In the process, New Orleans’s hip hop scene began to craft a unique identity quite different than that of most other cities. Tracks like Gregory D & DJ Mannie Fresh’s “Buck Jump Time” and MC Thick’s “Marrero (What The Fuck They Be Yellin)” began to express a New Orleans lyrical specificity largely absent from previous NO rap tracks. In addition, the projects (as well as clubs like Big Man’s, Flirts, 49 and Ghost Town) served as the primary venues for local, aspiring rappers.



But it wasn’t until Bounce that New Orleans crafted a truly unique brand of hip hop, largely based on the samples of two seemingly unlikely records whose journey to New Orleans remains obscure. New York rappers The Showboys released “Drag Rap” in 1986 to resounding disinterest. The first half of the track is very much in the vein of Run DMC, but the latter half kicks off with a synth cowbell-punctuated beat that forms the basis of almost all Bounce. The other track, perhaps even less likely to find its way to New Orleans, was British rapper Derek B’s 1987 single, “Rock the Beat.” An instrumental version of it, labeled “Brown Beats,” was included on legendary DJ Cameron Paul’s mix, Beats & Pieces. These two singles became the backbone of almost all Bounce, although, despite what you often read, they were by no means the only ones. You hear a lot of Rebirth Jazz Band, John Carpenter's Halloween theme and the Jackson 5 in Bounce as well. Just check out
http://bouncebreaksarchive.blogspot.com/ for a fairly comprehensive list.

 
What is Bounce?
Bounce, it is often noted, is based on repetitive, simplistic, call-and-response lyrics (mostly ward and neighborhood shout outs and dance call outs) and built (primarily) on just the two aforementioned singles. One thing that seems conspicuously absent from discussions of Bounce is the Dancehall-influenced flow of the rappers. In the early '90s, that influence was everywhere, from acts like Fu-Schnickens to songs like Ice Cube's "Wicked," which (like many others of the day) featured a guy toasting at some point.


Despite what the national media often suggests, Bounce isn't the widely-heard, late ‘90s New Orleans rap coming from labels like Cash Money and No Limit, although they, along with other New Orleans rappers like Devious, Dog House Posse, Kane & Abel, Mia X, Ruthless Juveniles and others occasionally incorporated Bounce aspects or recorded individual Bounce tracks.


Now a lot of haters and moaners will hate and moan about how Bounce is responsible for killing rap. Supposedly it does this by shifting the emphasis away from the (supposedly progressive) artistry of simple, rhyming couplets delivered with an unvariably 4-4 beat toward Bounce's polyrhythmic, lyrically abstract, fun chants that owe more to the Second Line; Bashment, slave-created music forms (e.g. field hollers and ring shouts); and children’s street culture like playground songs (e.g. "K-I-S-S-I-N-G"), clapping games (e.g." Mary Mack," "Miss Susie," "Stella Elle Olla") and jump-rope rhymes ("Fudge, fudge, call the judge," or "Three, six, nine, The goose drank wine"). This unpretentious rootsiness horrifies stodgy purists, creaky fuddy-duddies and cultural watchdogs but is ripe for enjoyment both from p-poppers and subcultural anthropologists who can hear that Bounce expresses more personality in one silly line than most “serious” rappers do over entire careers of insecure, self-absorbed, macho fantasy.

Trailer for Ya Heard Me

Bitch, Stop Talkin’ that Ish - Bounce’s Golden Age
With such a limited lyrical lexicon, DJs and producers like Polo, Precise, DJ Duck, DJ Money Fresh, Mannie Fresh, Henry the Man, E-Jay, and DJ Irv should get at least as much credit as the MCs for the creation of Bounce. Because, at least as important as calling out every ward, project and (on rare occasions) Southern state is the curiously powerful pull of those beats that just grab you.

TT Tucker & DJ Irv - "Where Dey At?"
 
1991
Bounce really began in late 1991, when TT Tucker and DJ Irv recorded, but never officially released, a song they’d perfected at Ghost Town, the blueprint for the genre, “Where Dey At?” It was so repetitive, so infectious and so gutter, it captured the hearts and minds of thousands and so it began. Sadly, the duo never much capitalized on their pivotal role, with TT Tucker in and out of the clink and DJ Irv tragically shot and killed.


DJ Jimi (featuring Jimi's mom) - "The Bitch's Reply"

1992
Almost immediately, similar Bounce songs followed in the wake of "Where Dey At?" Jimi “DJ Jimi” Payton, a DJ at Big Man’s, joined by Dion “Devious” Norman and Derrick “Mellow Fellow” Ordogne, crafted a followup, "(The Original) Where They At." After it was licensed to Memphis’s Avenue Records, it resulted in a response track from Memphian rapper FM with “Gimme What You Got (For a Pork Chop!). DJ Jimi also gave the first recording exposure to Juvenile, who went on to find lasting fame beyond the genre, but did so much with so little (lyrically) as a Bounce artist. That same year, Mannie Fresh and Gregory D ended their professional relationship, unhappy with RCA’s handling of their career. Fresh then joined the fledgling Cash Money label, whose first release (Kilo-G’s Sleepwalker) was not Bounce, but who soon were known for crafting Bounce songs, as was the fledgling Take Fo’ Records.

D.J. Jimi (featuring Juvenile)
– “Bounce (For the Juvenile)”
D.J. Jimi - “(The Original) Where They At”
Everlasting Hitman - Bounce! Baby, Bounce!

Ju'C - "Lick Da Cat"
 
1993
1993 was the year that Bounce really exploded. Moving beyond its simplistic origins only slightly, groups like UNLV helped popularize the genre by adding elements of Gangsta Rap and soon inspired many similar releases by other acts, especially across town, over at the brand-new Big Boy Records, which escalated into a heated Gangsta Bounce rivalry.

Da’ Sha Ra’ – Bootin’ Up
Daddy Yo – “I’m Not Your Trick Daddy”  
DJ Jubilee – “Jubilee All (Stop Pause)”
Joe BlakkIt Ain’t Where Ya From
Ju’C – “Lick Da Cat”
MC Spud & DJ Def  - “Holla If Ya Hear Me”
Lil Elt – “Get da Gat”
Sporty T – “Jackin for Bounce”
UNLV – “UNLV Style,” “Eddie Bow“

Fila Phil - "Hustlaz"

1994
In 1994, national interest in Bounce was first shown when Scott Aiges wrote an article on how much more popular the genre was in New Orleans than nationally promoted artists. The tone at the labels wasn't so much interest, but concern. They wondered why people were buying tapes out of trunks instead of the "Heatseekers" on the Hot 100? On April 22, in a tragedy for Bounce, his friends, fans and family, local legend Edgar "Pimp Daddy" Givens was murdered in the 9th ward.

B-32I Need a Bag of Dope
Fila Phil – “Hustlaz “
Lil Slim – “Eagle St. Bounce”
Partners-N-CrimePNC
Pimp Daddy – “Got 2 Be Real”
 

Dolemite - "Hustla, Hustla"

1995
In 1995, No Limit moved from Richmond, California to New Orleans where the Bounce scene was, by then, huge... at least, regionally. No Limit released a compilation of both Bounce and non-Bounce artists, Down South Hustlas -- Bouncing and Swingin' and began to successfully build on the New Orleans rap scene, ultimately signing a major deal with Priority, then flush with cash off the success of The California Raisins. Over the next few years, their Pen & Pixel-decorated CDs flooded the national market and media interest in New Orleans exploded as Southern rap began to completely eclipse the east and west coasts.

Cheeky Blakk – “Bitch Get Off Me,“ “Twerk Sumthin’"
Dolemite – "Hustla Hustla"
Ricky B. – “Shake Fa Ya Hood,” “Who Got The Fire”
2 BlakkThe Game
 

Magnolia Shorty - "Monkey on the D$ck"

1996
On February 6th, 1996, another Bounce pioneer, Floyd "Everlasting Hitman" Blount was tragically murdered in Fisher. Around the same time, with UNLV’s hit "Drag 'Em in the River" and No Limit’s Beats By the Pound-crafted, bottom-heavy, electronic-based rap, the media began to inaccurately ascribe the term "Bounce" to these nationally popular New Orleans releases. Over the next few years, the word “Bounce” was to be tossed like so much Mrs. Dash by many a non-southerner trying to add a little spice.

Lady Red – “Smokin’ Dat Weed”
Magnolia Shorty – “Monkey on the D$ck “


Kilo - "The Ward Song"
 
1997
By 1997, all of Cash Money’s original lineup of Bounce and non-Bounce artists were either dead (UNLV’s Albert "Yella Boy" Thomas was murdered on April 5th of that year) or dropped. Solja Rags, the new Juvenile album, further shifted attention away from Bounce with Juvenile' new direction and Mannie Fresh's continuation of his sound first evinced with UNLV a year earlier.

Kilo
– "The Ward Song"
Willie Puckett- "Doggie Hopp"
 
Snap Crackle Pop – The Silver Age of Bounce
By the end of the millennium (following their meteoric rise in popularity, major label deals, and subsequent mass defections of talent), Cash Money and No Limit were both reduced to being primarily family affairs. At the same time, national interest in Southern Hip Hop began to shift to Atlanta, Houston and Memphis -- scenes that owed heavily to New Orleans's sound and successes. 


Josephine Johnny - "Workin' With Sumthin'"

A new generation of Bounce artists began to expand the production pallet of Bounce, ironically, toward the increased use synthesizers and programming popularized by Beats By the Pound and Mannie Fresh, who’d helped popularize (in some ways at the expense of Bounce) New Orleans’s non-Bounce successes. The new crop of Bounce artists, despite moving beyond their Triggerman-and-Brown-Beat-sampling forebears, nonetheless undeniably carried the Bounce torch when, to some, it must've seemed all but done and dusted. In addition to all of these artists remaining active today, there are newer acts in the same vein, like Da Block Burnaz, keeping the classic N.O. Bounce spirit alive, whereas most rappers chase passing fads.

1999
5th Ward Weebie – “Show the World”
 
2000
Josephine Johnny – “Workin’ Wit Somethin “
 
2001
Choppa –“ Choppa Style”
 
Tweaker Twerk - Modern Bounce & Sissy Rap
Undeniably defying the tired suggestion that all Bounce sounds the same, modern Bounce artists can truly be said to be taking it into new directions. A large part of this seems to be due to the rise of Sissy Rap, the openly gay Bounce offshoot pioneered by Katey Red & Dem Hoes. Following her lead, a whole host of Sissy Rappers followed with similarly ear-splitting, racous songs whose lyrics make early Bounce artists look like Charles Dickens. Always more egalitarian than mainstream and so-called progressive hip hop, Bounce (like a lot of booty-targeting music) has always had a comparatively large following among women and gays. The “Sissy” moniker, like “Cheb” in Rai, is nearly but not quite universal. With newer Bounce artists including Big Freeda (aka Big Freedia), rappers on the DL, heteroflexibles and just given the confusing sartorial sense of kids today, it becomes harder to differentiate many Sissy Rappers from straight modern Bounce artists, as their music is generally very similar.

Gotty Boi Chris - "Dip Low"
 
The defining development of modern Bounce and Sissy Rap is the increased aural insanity. Faster tempos, lyrics reduced to chopped and repeated phonemes, punishing dissonance, cacophonous clangor and frequently blown out production have turned what was once a distinct-from-but-recognizably-related-to-hip-hop genre into something that sounds like a hybrid of Gabber and Gnawa. The end result is almost avant-garde, and more deserving of the hype and description that Konono No. 1 generated a few years back with their comparatively familiar, down-to-earth approach. No doubt the increasingly insular nature of Bounce is only part of what keeps it out of the mainstream, despite recent media attention.


Big Choo - "Get Low"

Unfortunately, finding accurate discographical information on Bounce artists seems to grow surprisingly more difficult, the newer the artist. But other exemplars include DJ Black N Mild, Big Choo (“Get Low”), 9th Ward Tea, 10th Ward Buck, Chev Off the Ave (“Hollywood Bounce”), Dre Skull, Elm Boy Peg, Gotty Boi Chris, MC Shakie (“Double Dribble” and “Hands on Da Ground”), Sissy Jay, Sissy Nobby and Vockah Redu.
 
1999
Katey Red & Dem Hoes – “Tiddy Bop”
 
2000
Big Freedia –“A'han, Oh Yeah”
 
2002
SWA – “We’re #1“
 
2004
Faster Boyz – “I Ain’t Had Sex in a Long Time”
 
2005
Hot Boy Ronald – “Walk Like Ronald "

Any corrections or additions will be incorporated. Peace!


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James Presley Ball

Posted by Whitmore, February 28, 2009 07:31pm | Post a Comment

James Presley Ball
was one of the most successful and famous African-American daguerreotypists of the19th century. Born in 1825 in Virginia, Ball opened his first photography studio at the age of twenty in Cincinnati, Ohio, just a few years after the invention of the daguerreotype. Business didn’t fare well, but the following year when he returned to Richmond, Virginia, Ball found considerable success with his new studio. By 1847 he took to the road again, this time as a traveling daguerreotypist, eventually returning to Cincinnati. In 1855 Ball published an abolitionist pamphlet depicting the horrors of slavery; accompanying his publication was an exhibition of his daguerreotypes on the subject of slavery, which he exhibited several times in the pre-Civil War years. After living some three decades in Ohio, he moved to Minneapolis, opening a daguerreotype studio there with his son. In 1887 Ball moved to Helena, Montana. That same year he was selected as the official photographer for a celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. While living in Montana he was also elected a delegate to the Republican convention for the Montana territory in 1894. In his years in Montana he produced hundreds of incredible photographs depicting life in the White, Black and Chinese communities. In 1900, he moved to Seattle, Washington opening his final studio, the Globe Photo Studio. In poor health, James Presley Ball moved once again, this time to Honolulu, Hawaii, where he died in 1904. His extensive body of work is housed at the Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati Historical Society, Montana Historical Society, and the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, as well as in many private collections.

Jules Lion

Posted by Whitmore, February 28, 2009 03:07pm | Post a Comment
The daguerreotype was the precursor to the modern photography process; an image is exposed directly onto a highly polished silver metal plate, its surface coated with silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor-- a later advancement was the use of bromine and chlorine vapors to shorten the exposure time. The daguerreotype produced a negative image, but the mirrored surface of the plate reflects the captured image, making it appear positive once light is exposed to the photograph. Early experimenters had tinkered with the idea of photography for over a hundred years, but it was Louis Daguerre who finally perfected the technique in about 1839. Less then a year later the rich history of American photography began in New Orleans at #3 St Charles Street, in the private studio/residence of Jules Lion, "a freeman of color," who opened the first daguerreotype studio in New Orleans and one of the very first in the entire United States.
 
Born in 1810 in Paris, France, Jules Lion was the first of about fifty documented black daguerreotypists who operated galleries/studios in the first half of the 19th century in the U.S. He originally moved to New Orleans from France in 1837 where he was a lithographer and portrait painter -- at the Exposition of Paris of 1833 he was the youngest lithographer to be awarded an honorable mention. It’s believed that Lion returned briefly to Paris in 1839 and 1840 to study photography with Louis Daguerre. Upon his return Lion exhibited his first daguerreotypes in New Orleans in 1840; unfortunately only a couple of them have survived. By 1841 in New Orleans, he was lecturing on photography, co-founded an art school and was running a successful studio. Not much more is known of Jules Lion, except the occasional newspaper announcement and city records listing him as a professor of drawing at the College of Louisiana from 1852 to 1865. In his later years he returned to painting portraitures. Among his most famous commissions were portraits of President Andrew Jackson and naturalist John J. Audubon. Throughout his career he continued teaching and occasionally returning to Paris to exhibit his lithographs and daguerreotypes until his death in New Orleans in 1866.

The Nicholas Brothers

Posted by Whitmore, February 26, 2009 07:09pm | Post a Comment

Back in the hey day of the Hollywood Musical, during the 1930’s and 40’s, there was a plethora of extremely talented high flying family dance troupes, starting with the ballroom sophistication of Fred and Adele Astaire to the lightning fast feet of the Condos Brothers to the tap dancing brilliance of Four Step Brothers to the over the top athleticism of the Berry Brothers. But the best, most explosive, and daringly innovative were the Nicholas Brothers, Fayard (1914–2006) and Harold (1921–2000). With their highly acrobatic "flash dancing" tap style and spectacular choreography, they are considered by many to be greatest dance team not only of the era, but of all time.
 
Growing up in Philadelphia, Fayard and Harold were the sons of vaudevillian musicians-- a pianist mother and drummer father who led their own band working the circuit. In 1932, when Harold was 11 years of age and Fayard 18, they became the featured act at Harlem's legendary Cotton Club. That same year they shot their first film, a short subject musical called Pie, Pie, Blackbird.
 
The Nicholas Brothers made their Broadway debut in the Ziegfeld Follies in 1936, directed by Vincente Minnelli and choreographed by George Balanchine, they performed alongside stars such as Fannie Brice, Bob Hope, and Josephine Baker. Two years later in a packed Cotton Club, Fayard and Harold reigned supreme in the legendary dance-off against the other leading tap dancing family of the day, the Berry Brothers. By some accounts the Berry Brothers trio showed perhaps more bravado, but the Nicholas Brothers brought down the house with sheer finesse and artistry.   
 
Shortly thereafter, Fayard and Harold found themselves in Hollywood starring in a series of short subject films and guesting in several big budget musicals, like Down Argentine Way and Tin Pan Alley. In 1941 the duo appeared in both Glenn Miller movies, Sun Valley Serenade and Orchestra Wives. The former included the definitive version of “Chattanooga Choo Choo;” the brothers' dance number also included Harold’s future first wife, the incomparably beautiful Dorothy Dandridge.
 
In 1943 the Nicholas Brothers filmed what Fred Astaire has called the greatest dance sequence ever put to celluloid. In an amazing display of strength, agility and timing, they danced to Cab Calloway’s hard swinging “Jumpin' Jive” in the classic film Stormy Weather. The routine included Harold and Fayard hopping from table to table and over music stands, bounding between musicians in the orchestra and finally leap-frogging over each other down a flight of stairs, landing a complete split each time. Mikhail Baryshnikov called them the most amazing dancers he’d ever seen.
 
They’ve received numerous awards and accolades. In 1948 The Nicholas brothers gave a royal command performance for the King of England at the London Palladium and over the years they danced for nine different Presidents. Retrospectives of the Nicholas Brothers' work in film include a special presentation at the 1981 Academy Awards and a Kennedy Center Honors in 1991. They were awarded an honorary doctorate degree from Harvard University where they taught master classes in tap dance as teachers-in-residence. In 1994 they received a star on Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7083 Hollywood Blvd and were inducted into the first class of the Apollo Theater's Hall of Fame and the Black Filmmaker's Hall of Fame. The Nicholas Brothers were also recipients of the 1998 Samuel H. Scripps American Dance Festival Award for Lifetime Achievement in Modern Dance.
 
I once met Fayard and Harold back in the 1980’s while I was attending LACC. They were invited to give a talk about their careers and incredible lives. Both of them still looked pretty damned fit, but unfortunately neither danced. I wanted to ask a question about life with Dorothy Dandridge, but I figured the conversation might take a gloomy turn, so I just kept my mouth shut; I suspect it might have been the right decision. Her life ended prematurely and tragically. Somewhere in my pile of papers I still have the program signed by both brothers.  
 
Harold died July 3, 2000 of a heart attack following minor surgery. Fayard died January 24, 2006 of pneumonia -- a complication from a stroke.
 
Check out the footage below-- some of the dance routines are simply mind blowing.





Longtime Sacramento Hip-Hop Artist C-BO is Truly Gangsta Rap & Despite a Career Interrupted by Long Stretches Behind Bars, He Has Remained Highly Prolific

Posted by Billyjam, February 25, 2009 02:27pm | Post a Comment

c-bo
Rapper C-BO has long been known for his no-holds-barred, shock-filled, self-described "killer style" of gangsta rap. Ever since his debut album Gas Chamber sixteen years ago, the Sacramento rapper has been consistently satisfying his dedicated legions of hardcore rap fans with both controversy and countless releases. In addition to a string of solo albums, he has also collaborated on songs or albums with the likes of first cousin E40, 2Pac, Yukmouth, Killa Tay, Spice-1, Master P, Brotha Lynch Hung, as well as his crew Mob Figaz, to name but a few.

Unlike so many self-described "gangsta" rappers, Shawn "C-BO" Thomas is genuinely 'gangsta'. Growing up in the notorious gang-filled Garden Block of Sacramento, the artist became a member of the Crips while barely into his teens, and openly admits his past involvement in drug dealing and other gang related crimes before he became a full time recording artist. His rap name stands for Cowboy: "I got the name cowboy from being around guns all the time," he told me in a 1997 interview.

Not surprisingly, that lifestyle resulted in C-BO's spending several periods of his life incarcerated from his teens onwards. It was in jail in 1993 that he first met Killa Tay, who he would later collaborate with. And it was also during a separate stint in the Sacramento County Jail that he collaborated with fellow inmate X-Raided on writing some music. In fact, it was X-Raided who wrote the song "Deadly Game" for C-BO, a song that later landed C-BO back in jail and caused a national controversy -- drawing attention and outrage amongst freedom of speech advocates while simultaneously only further fuc-boeling C-BO's notorious reputation amongst hardcore rap fans.

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