After short-lived attempts in the silent era to establish an Asian-American Cinema, for most of the in the first and second halves of the studio era, Hollywood single-handedly created and controlled almost all celluloid images of Asian-Americans. With the beginnings of Asian-American theater in the 1960s and its growth in the 1970s coinciding with the decline of the Hollywood studio system, all that began to change with the rebirth of Asia-American Cinema, albeit slowly at first. Only in the 1990s and 2000s has a large and diverse Asian-American cinema, Asian-American theater and Asian-American comedy scene truly flourished -- offering a viable alternative to Hollywood's continued stereotypes and ongoing homogeneity.
THE CHANGING FACE OF ASIAN-AMERICA IN THE '70S
In the 1970s, more than 130,000 refugees arrived from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, drastically changing the make-up of the Asian-American population. Broadly speaking, this wave of immigrants had more in common socio-economically speaking with most blacks, Latinos and Natives; therein challenging the mid '60s-born concept of Asians as "the model minority."
GROWTH OF ASIAN-AMERICAN THEATER '70S
The growth of Asian-American theater provided an outlet for APA Actors who found themselves out of work in Hollywood after a brief post-war fetishistic period in the studio era. During the decade, new APA theater groups including New York's Pan Asian Repertory Theatre and Asian American Theater Company and San Francisco's Theatre of Yugen encouraged a new generation to pursue acting. As a result, first time in many years Asian-Americans began to appear on TV and films in increasing numbers, in roles that occasionally challenged the stereotypes and bit parts they'd been relegated to in mainstream America.
APA TV IN THE '70S
On TV in the '70s, Hawaiia Five-0, Kung-Fu and M*A*S*H often featured Asian-American actors, albeit most often in non-recurring bit parts. However, Mr. T & Tina, starring Pat Morita, became only the second American TV series to star an Asian-American actor. Frank Chin's Year of the Dragon and Wakako Yamauchi's And the Soul Shall Dance were both adapted for television productions from plays.
BEGINNINGS OF APA CINEMA IN THE '70S
Following the popularity of San Francisco-born Bruce Lee, many APA actors found themselves cast in martial arts-centered roles and still usually as portraying foreigners rather than Americans. But with the rebirth of Asian-American Cinema (actually made by Asian-Americans) that would begin to change.
Robert Akira Nakamura
In 1970, Robert Akira Nakamura founded Visual Communications, which is today the oldest community-based media arts center in the US. The acclaimed filmmaker and teacher is sometimes known as“the Godfather of Asian American media.” Nakamura was previously a photojournalist who switched to documentary film, Manzanar (1972), an examination of the wartime internment of Japanese-Americans.
In 1974, Loni Ding produced and directed Willie Lobo: Manchild about a black Vietnam vet. It was the first feature film directed by an Asian-American since (coincidentally, another Chinese-American female) Marion Wong's The Curse of Quon Gwon in 1916.
In 1976, Curtis X Choy (aka Chonk Moonhunter) began directing documentaries, beginning with Dupont Guy – The Schiz of Grant Avenue, an examination of Chinese-American culture.
In 1978, the Asian American International Film Festival (AAIFF) was founded in New York City.
Before long, other Asian-Americans filmmakers followed in these pioneers' footsteps, telling stories with their own voices and offering a growing alternative to Hollywood.
APA ACTORS OF THE 70s
Art Malik Christina Kokubo Clyde Kusatsu
Dana Lee Evan C. Kim Freda Foh Shen
George Cheung Haunani Minn James Saito
Joan Chen Keenan Shimizu Ken Narasaki
Marilyn Tokuda Michael Paul Chan Moe Keale
Peter Kwong Ranjit Chowdhry Richard Lee-Sung
Rosalind Chao Sab Shimono Shizuko Hoshi
Takayo Fischer Tzi Ma Wood Moy
APA RELATED FILMS OF THE '70S:
Not pictured: Chinatown 2-Step and Kung Fu (both 1972) Pieces of a Dream (1973) I Told You So, Judgement - The Court Martial of the Tiger of Malaya - General Yamashita, Men of the Dragon, Omai Fa'atasi - Samoa Mo Samoa and To Be Me - Tony Quon (all 1974) City, City, The Journey, Kites and Other Tales and Wataridori - Birds of Passage (all 1975) Farewell to Manzanar (1976) And the Soul Shall Dance (1978) and When Hell Was in Session (1979)